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In terms of doping, enhancement of oxygen transfer includes blood doping and the use of artificial oxygen carriers. It also includes erythropoietin but this substance is presented in another submenu of this website.

Blood doping is the administration of red blood cells to an athlete to increase his blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity. Blood doping consists of techniques administered for non-medical reasons to healthy athletes in order to improve the blood oxygen-carrying capacity, increasing oxygen delivery to the muscles, particularly in conditions of demanding physical exercise.

Blood doping includes the use of autologous or homologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin and it is prohibited in sports. Furthermore, artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).

Examples include injecting an athlete with someone else’s red blood cells; removing own blood two to three months before competition, storing it, and then returning it once body has compensated blood volume loss finally resulting in a raised blood volume.