Technische Universität München

The Entrepreneurial University

Athletes use chemical and physical manipulation in order to hide the presence of banned substances in their urine sample. Urine samples can be manipulated to cover up the use of prohibited substances. Athletes knowing that they have used a prohibited substance could attempt to cover up this use.

The chance to be caught depends on vigilance of testers. Epitestosterone is easily detected if the athlete is tested. Physical manipulation should be extremely difficult if tester follows proper anti-doping test procedures.