Technische Universität München

The Entrepreneurial University

Liver cells suffer damages from morphine applications by oxidative stress. According to the spastic effect on the bile ducts in the liver and the contraction of the sphincter oddi biliary colics can appear, too. Furthermore morphine stimulates the secretion of enzymes in the exocrine pancreas. All these aspects could lead to the quite unspecific symptoms of upper abdominal disturbances.