Technische Universität München

The Entrepreneurial University

 
In sports, the exogenous application of some hormones is mainly aimed to achieve anabolic effects by direct action of hormone or by stimulation of the testosterone production. In result, the hormones influence the central nervous system in a similar manner like anabolic-androgenic steroids what could be manifested by aggressive and violent behavior. Human growth hormone (hGH) is secreted by somatotropic cells located in the anterior pituitary under the control of two hypothalamic hormones: somatostatin, which inhibits secretion and somatocrinin, which stimulates its secretion. The hGH stimulates growth of all tissues of the body.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have been used by some sportsmen to increase production of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) in order to achieve doping effects of testosterone and to mask these effects by keeping T/E ratio within physiological levels. Insulin has powerful effects on carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism which can be additionally enhanced by other hormones particularly by hGH and insulin-like growth factors IGF. Adverse effects of application of these hormones include changes in mood, hypertrophic neuropathy, vision loss, sleep apnea and possible development of type II diabetes mellitus. 
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