Technische Universität München

The Entrepreneurial University

Growth hormone (hGH) induces direct anabolic effects, it increases insulin levels, which exerts antiproteolytic effects, possibly leading to short-term increase of physical performance. However, long-term use of hGH is found to cause cardiomyopathy, and increase the incidence of arrhythmias.

Erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is mainly abused by endurance athletes, in order to increase their aerobic capacity. Treatment with rHuEPO leads to a dose-dependent increase in hematological parameters. It increases red blood cell mass and can also elevate the levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), when it is repeatedly administered. High levels of Hct may cause increased viscosity of the blood, which elevates the risk of thrombosis and embolisms. Moreover, arterial hypertension and seizures may be observed. A significant decrease in maximum heart rate has also been reported.