Technische Universität München

The Entrepreneurial University

Estrogens enhance humoral response and antibody production. In some autoimmune diseases high levels of estrogens in both genders were detected, and estrogens appear to be one of the major hormones involved in the dimorphism of the immune response. Pharmacological manipulation of gonadal hormone levels influence the susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases and affect the clinical course of autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, estrogens are, in general, considered as immunostimulatory hormones in healthy people. 
Therefore, the inhibition of estrogen activity could also enhance the risk of an infection and its exacerbation and moreover could alter the development of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases.