Technische Universität München

The Entrepreneurial University

Testosterone, the male sex hormone, acts on central and peripheral nervous system and produces both anabolic (tissue building) and androgenic (masculinization) effects. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are derivatives of testosterone. Almost every cell in the body possesses receptors for AAS and the response to AAS depends on location and type of the tissue. Applied initially for a treatment of hypogonadism, anemia and certain psychiatric disorders AAS has been widely used by athletes to gain strength and muscle mass, to increase the protein synthesis and the red blood cells as well as to decrease body fat. The AAS are especially popular in disciplines of sport like professional football, weight lifting, power lifting, bodybuilding and track and field.
Application of AAS is associated with increased levels of irritability, aggression, personality disturbances and other psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, AAS can cause a psychological dependence.