Technische Universität München

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In the history of doping, there have been many definitions. The current official definition of doping is given based on the World Anti-Doping Code as follows:

“Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the anti-doping rule violations set forth in Article 2.1 through article 2.8 of the World Anti-Doping Code.”

Other former doping definitions are:

  1. Doping in sport is defined as “the administration to or use by a healthy individual … of any agent or substance nor normally present in the body … and/or of any physiological agent or substance … when introduced in abnormal additional quantities and/or by an abnormal route and/or in an abnormal manner, … with the purpose and effect of increasing artificially and in an unfair manner the performance of that individual during the period of competition”
    (first definition of doping adopted in 1963 by the Council of Europe Committee for Out-of-School Education)

  2. Doping in sports consists in using prohibited substances in breach of the rules of the competent sports organizations
    (1984 European conference)

  3. Doping in sport is defined as “the administration to sportsmen or sportswomen, or the use by them, of pharmacological classes of doping agents or doping methods”
    (Council of Europe Anti-doping Convention of 16th November 1989)

  4. Doping is defined as the presence in the human body of substances which are prohibited according to the list published by the International Olympic Committee and/or the international organization of the member organization in question. The use of such substances, their presence in urine or blood samples, and the use of methods with the purpose of altering the result of an analysis of a urine or blood sample are prohibited.
    (IOC definition – before WADA foundation)

  5. Doping in sport is the deliberate or inadvertent use by an athlete of a substance or method banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). FIMS supports the prohibition of doping to protect athletes from:
    • the unfair advantage which may be gained by those athletes who use banned substances or methods to enhance performance,
    • the possible harmful side effects which some substances or methods can produce.
    In addition to the ethical and health consequences surrounding doping, recognition is made of potential legal implications. The distribution of many banned substances (e.g., anabolic steroids), if not for a medically justified reason, is illegal in many countries. Encouraging or assisting athletes to use such substances or methods is unethical and, therefore, equally forbidden.
    (Position Statement of the International Federation of Sports Medicine – before WADA foundation)
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